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Marketing Communication

- Apr 17, 2018 -


Marketing communication


Communication is one important aspect of the marketing mix. marketing communication is often the largest component of communication within a company, which may be to present company value, objectives or specific products and services to investors, customers or the general public. In the 21st century, communications objectives continue to lead towards more customized messages, targeting customer groups or individuals to create high responses and greater brand interaction.

As business becomes increasingly global with greater access to Internet, mobile phones and social media, new challenges exist with communication professionals to inform people in particular foreign markets to facilitate business activity. Shifts in the global economy and access to new markets lead also to greater demands for product shipping and services delivered to customers in foreign markets. To be effective, communication strategies must converge with marketing objectives while also account for local languages, dialects and cultural norms.

Communications are including both external communication and internal communication. External communication can be market research questionnaires, office website, guarantees, company annual report and the presentation for investors. Internal communication can be the marketing materials, price list, product catalogues, sales presentations and management communications. On the other hand, each market demands different types of communications. For example, industrial market demands a more personal communication but consumer market demand a non-personal communication.

There are also 4 different fundamental types of communication.

One-to-many: this kind of communication is the most original communication. It is "generated from a single broadcast point and then available over airwaves or in mass print runs". This type of communication is usually adapted to news distribution that does not specific not even interactive. Such as in an urgent notice play over airwave from broadcast in an industry, it is helpful for the general announcement.

Many-to-one: many-to-one is usually connected to the one-to-many communication. For example, a reply button in your email box, a prepaid number bought from Spark. All the communication techniques proceeded to the public with bi-directional communication from mass communications.

One-to-one: this is the most intensive and interactive communication at a one-to-one level.There are so many examples like a sales presentation; a negotiation in the market or direct delivery is base on the one-to-one communication. Most of this communication is face to face. But in the development of Internet, email and online shopping are taking place the chance to face to face of people. Which is provided the chance to sellers and buyers talk more directly. Another important is instant message 'chat' channel like Wechat and Facebook, which are becoming extremely popular in business.

Many-to-many: on the background of highly developed Internet, the many-to-many communication has been growing up such as online chat rooms, 'blogging' websites. The many-to-many communication stands for the participants are able to exchange their ideas and experiences.

After all, each type of communication applies to different situation and is time-based. The communications have the features of immediacy and longevity. Such as one-to-one is more focus on now but the many-to-may channels tend to less urgency and more reference.

Psychology of communication

One of the primary goals of a marketing communication is to persuade consumers, by either changing their perception of a brand, product or service, or persuading them to purchase (or feel motivated / tempted to purchase) a product or service. The "Elaboration Likelihood Model" is used to demonstrate how persuasion occurs. When a marketing communication message is sent out, first it must be acknowledged and attended by the receiver. By giving their attention to the marketing communication, consumers will begin to process and comprehend the message. There are two routes to persuasion: Central route and peripheral route. Central route processing is used in high-involvement purchase decisions. These are infrequent, high-risk purchases, usually involving large amounts of money and a significant amount of time (for example, purchasing a house or car). Because these purchase decisions are high risk, a large cognitive effort is expended in order to rationally select the most logical and valuable option available. In these marketing messages, information about the product or service itself is most valuable. Peripheral route processing is employed in low involvement purchase decisions. These are frequent, low-risk purchases, generally of a low or medium cost in which choices are made more on affective (or emotion based) values rather than cognitive (or rational) values. Because of this, marketing messages will employ more storytelling and imagery, focusing on how the product or service makes one feel, and the associations it has, rather than the attributes and specifications it possesses.

Opinion Leaders: Opinion leaders are consumers who have large influence over the purchasing behaviour of other consumers. These can take the form of peers or celebrities, and often represent a "desired state" in the eye of the influenced consumer. By following the consumption patterns of opinion leaders, consumers aspire to achieve a similar status or lifestyle, and project a similar image. Because of this, opinion leaders are powerful factors in marketing communications. Having opinion leaders endorse a brand can increase brand awareness and sales. Due to this, large companies pay highly influential celebrities to endorse their products.

Opinion Formers: Opinion formers are consumers who are regarded by their peers as being highly knowledgeable and trustworthy. They are considered experts in selecting the highest quality products due to their extensive knowledge, and as such are able to influence the purchasing behaviour of other consumers despite lacking the celebrity status of an opinion leader.

Communication Barriers: Communication barriers are factors that hinder the effectiveness of a marketing communication. Major communication barriers are: Noise and clutter, consumer apathy, brand parity and weak creative ideas or strategies. Noise is an unrelated sensory stimulus that distracts a consumer from the marketing message (for example, people talking nearby making it hard to hear a radio advertisement). Clutter is the high number and concentration of advertisements presented to a consumer at any time. As attention cannot be divided, there is a limit to how much can be taken in and processed, which means that a strong marketing communication needs to stand out from the clutter and be heard above the noise. (Ang, 2014. "Principles of Integrated Marketing Communications". Page 11.) Consumer apathy is the tendency of a consumer to avoid marketing communications. This can be for a number of reasons. The consumer may not be interested, or consider themselves "in the market," and as such attempt to shut out the irrelevant marketing stimuli. This is known as selective attention. Alternatively, a consumer may be "in the market," yet not be aware of the brand or products existence or prevalence. Consumers tend to purchase familiar brands, and will not be inspired to investigate alternatives. One approach marketers use to overcome apathy is to create incentives, such as competitive pricing or loyalty rewards. (Ang, 2014. "Principles of Integrated Marketing Communications". Page 11.) Brand parity means a brand is not significantly different from its competition. Without a distinct value proposition, consumers do not develop brand preference or associations, and instead purchase purely based on price (Ang, 2014. "Principles of Integrated Marketing Communications". Page 12). This is not ideal, as effective marketing communication increases brand equity. One important objective of marketing communications is to develop a strong, unique brand identity that allows the brand to be positioned separate from its competition.


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